Cataract formation is the most frequent complication of pars plana vitrectomy, even without the use of air, gas, or silicone oil. The formation of lens opacities may occur intraoperatively, precluding adequate visualization during the last phases of a long procedure, or early postoperatively, making it difficult or impossible to complete fundus examination. Alternatively, a slow but progressive lens opacification following vitrectomy can be a major
cause of underestimation of visual potential.

Although cataract is widely described among the complications of vitrectomy, the precise relationship between vitrectomy and the development of lens opacity is not completely understood. The following text presents an extensive literature review and the authors’ personal experience with this complication.