Background To study the incidence of endophthalmitis after 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and to compare it with the endophthalmitis rate after 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy performed in the same ophthalmology department.
Methods The charts of 4,021 consecutive 20-gauge or 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomies performed at a single
institution, between August 1 2003 and April 1 2008, were reviewed to search for the occurrence of postoperative
endophthalmitis. This is a retrospective, interventional, comparative cohort study.
Results Endophthalmitis developed in one of 3,078 eyes after 20-gauge vitrectomy (0.03%) and in none of 943 eyes
after 23-gauge vitrectomy.
Conclusions We did not find an increased risk of endophthalmitis after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy.

Keywords: Sutureless vitrectomy, Sclerotomy sites, Endophthalmitis